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„Poduzetništvo: Uspješno pokretanje novih poduhvata" 3/e

Autori: Bruce R. Barringer, R. Duane Ireland
Izdanje na bosanskom jeziku


 BH telecomSponzor manifestacija Centra za razvoj poduzetništva u 2014. godini



GEM methodology

GEM research is conducted on the basis of an annual assessment of entrepreneurial activity on the national level, based on a harmonized approach, which is used by all participating countries to perceive the role of entrepreneurship in the growth of the national economy.

GEM study is based on data collected from three sources:

  • data collected by surveying a representative sample of the adult population,
  • data collected by surveying and interviewing experts in the field of entrepreneurship and
  • data collected from standardized secondary international databases.

1. Adult population survey (APS)

The most significant set of data in the GEM project is obtained by surveying adult population. Every year a random sample of the adult population is surveyed, using a specially developed questionnaire, and collected data is used for measuring entrepreneurial activity at the state level. The method of data collection is determined by the method of conducting the study (from personal interviews or mail to the telephone survey).
Every year, each of the national teams is responsible for the implementation of survey with around 2000 people, representatives of the adult population in the country. For this survey the national team employs a specialized firm to conduct a survey via telephone.
Adult population survey provides an overview of attitudes in adults in general population, towards entrepreneurship, as well as information on whether they are involved in activities of starting-up business or are already business owners.
GEM uses a holistic approach to the study of entrepreneurship and provides a comprehensive set of measures aimed to describe several aspects of the entrepreneurial structure in a country. In addition to early stage entrepreneurial activity, GEM identifies "established business owners" who are entrepreneurs, which paid salaries and benefits for more than 42 months and their businesses have survived the highest risk phase of entrepreneurial ventures. Furthermore, comparison of early stage entrepreneurial activity and established business can provide more information on state of entrepreneurship in the country.
GEM also documented entrepreneurial motivation. Therefore, business owners are classified as those that are driven by "necessity" and those who are driven by "opportunities." In addition, GEM documents the characteristics of entrepreneurs, taking into account: novelty of products, intensity of competition, employment and expansion plans, and the use of technology. Finally, GEM reviews socioeconomic characteristics of the population, as well as their subjective perceptions and expectations of the entrepreneurial environment. 

2. National experts survey (NES)

Another relevant source of information in the study of entrepreneurial activity are views and opinions of experts, collected through a standardized questionnaire composed of several groups of questions relating to the business environment. Sample of experts is selected on the basis of their reputation and as such is not a representative sample of experts in the field of entrepreneurship.
Interviewing technique is often used for this survey. National experts are people who are directly involved in the creation of the main aspects of the entrepreneurial framework in their country, and this may include prominent businessmen, politicians, academics, government officials and others. Although the sample does not meet strict scientific criteria of representativeness the choice takes into account the representation of experts from different levels (national, regional, local).

This survey provides information about the nine entrepreneurship framework conditions, as follows:

  • Financial support
  • Government policy
  • Government programs
  • Education and training
  • Research and development
  • Commercial and professional infrastructure
  • Market openness
  • Access to physical infrastructure and
  • Social and cultural norms.

The aim of this study is to develop a dialogue with experts on entrepreneurship and identify their opinions and suggestions in relation to the ways of improvement and development of entrepreneurship in the country.

3. Data collected from standardized secondary international databases

In order to establish and test the relationship between the level of entrepreneurial activity in each country and macroeconomic conditions, the GEM project collects various standardized data, obtained from international data sources, such as the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, OECD, United Nations and others. These data are available to national teams involved in the GEM project.


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